Publications

2009
Brian C Healy, Eman N Ali, Charles RG Guttmann, Tanuja Chitnis, Bonnie I Glanz, Guy Buckle, Maria Houtchens, Lynn Stazzone, Jennifer Moodie, Annika M Berger, Yang Duan, Rohit Bakshi, Samia Khoury, Howard Weiner, and Alberto Ascherio. 2009. “Smoking and disease progression in multiple sclerosis.” Arch Neurol, 66, 7, Pp. 858-64.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Although cigarette smokers are at increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS), the effect of smoking on the progression of MS remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To establish the relationship between cigarette smoking and progression of MS using clinical and magnetic resonance imaging outcomes DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey and longitudinal follow-up for a mean of 3.29 years, ending January 15, 2008. SETTING: Partners MS Center (Boston, Massachusetts), a referral center for patients with MS. PATIENTS: Study participants included 1465 patients with clinically definite MS (25.1% men), with mean (range) age at baseline of 42.0 (16-75) years and disease duration of 9.4 (0-50.4) years. Seven hundred eighty patients (53.2%) were never-smokers, 428 (29.2%) were ex-smokers, and 257 (17.5%) were current smokers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Smoking groups were compared for baseline clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics as well as progression and sustained progression on the Expanded Disability Status Scale at 2 and 5 years and time to disease conversion to secondary progressive MS. In addition, the rate of on-study change in the brain parenchymal fraction and T2 hyperintense lesion volume were compared. RESULTS: Current smokers had significantly worse disease at baseline than never-smokers in terms of Expanded Disability Status Scale score (adjusted P < .001), Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (adjusted P < .001), and brain parenchymal fraction (adjusted P = .004). In addition, current smokers were significantly more likely to have primary progressive MS (adjusted odds ratio, 2.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-5.34). At longitudinal analyses, MS in smokers progressed from relapsing-remitting to secondary progressive disease faster than in never-smokers (hazard ratio for current smokers vs never-smokers, 2.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-4.41). In addition, in smokers, the T2-weighted lesion volume increased faster (P = .02), and brain parenchymal fraction decreased faster (P = .02). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that cigarette smoke has an adverse influence on the progression of MS and accelerates conversion from a relapsing-remitting to a progressive course.
JM Stankiewicz, M Neema, DC Alsop, BC Healy, A Arora, GJ Buckle, T Chitnis, CRG Guttmann, D Hackney, and R Bakshi. 2009. “Spinal cord lesions and clinical status in multiple sclerosis: A 1.5 T and 3 T MRI study.” J Neurol Sci, 279, 1-2, Pp. 99-105.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Assess the relationship between spinal cord T2 hyperintense lesions and clinical status in multiple sclerosis (MS) with 1.5 and 3 T MRI. METHODS: Whole cord T2-weighted fast spin-echo MRI was performed in 32 MS patients [Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score (mean+/-SD: 2+/-1.9), range 0-6.5]. Protocols at 1.5 T and 3 T were optimized and matched on voxel size. RESULTS: Moderate correlations were found between whole cord lesion volume and EDSS score at 1.5 T (r(s)=.36, p=0.04), but not at 3 T (r(s)=0.13, p=0.46). Pyramidal Functional System Score (FSS) correlated with thoracic T2 lesion number (r(s)=.46, p=0.01) and total spinal cord lesion number (r(s)=0.37, p=0.04) and volume (r(s)=0.37, p=0.04) at 1.5 T. Bowel/bladder FSS correlated with T2 lesion volume and number in the cervical, thoracic, and total spine at 1.5 T (r(s) 0.40-0.57, all p<0.05). These MRI-FSS correlations were non-significant at 3 T. However, these correlation coefficients did not differ significantly between platforms (Choi's test p>0.05). Correlations between whole cord lesion volume and timed 25-foot walk were non-significant at 1.5 T and 3 T (p>0.05). Lesion number and volume did not differ between MRI platforms in the MS group (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the use of higher field MRI strength, the link between spinal lesions and MS disability remains weak. The 1.5 T and 3 T protocols yielded similar results for many comparisons.
Bastiaan Moraal, Dominik S Meier, Peter A Poppe, Jeroen JG Geurts, Hugo Vrenken, William MA Jonker, Dirk L Knol, Ronald A van Schijndel, Petra JW Pouwels, Christoph Pohl, Lars Bauer, Rupert Sandbrink, Charles RG Guttmann, and Frederik Barkhof. 2009. “Subtraction MR images in a multiple sclerosis multicenter clinical trial setting.” Radiology, 250, 2, Pp. 506-14.Abstract
PURPOSE: To explore the applicability of subtraction magnetic resonance (MR) images to (a) detect active multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions, (b) directly quantify lesion load change, and (c) detect treatment effects (distinguish treatment arms) in a placebo-controlled multicenter clinical trial by comparing the subtraction scheme with a conventional pair-wise comparison of nonregistered MR images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-six pairs of MR studies in 40 patients (31 women; mean age, 31.9 years) from a multicenter clinical trial were used. The clinical trial was approved by local ethics review boards, and all subjects gave written informed consent. Active MS lesions were scored by two independent raters, and lesion load measurements were conducted by using semiautomated software. Lesion counts were evaluated by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, interrater agreement was evaluated by using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and treatment (interferon beta-1b) effect was evaluated by using the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: When subtraction images were used, there was a 1.7-fold increase in the detection of positive active lesions, as compared with native image pairs, and significantly greater interobserver agreement (ICC = 0.98 vs 0.91, P < .001). Subtraction images also allowed direct quantification of positive disease activity, a measure that provided sufficient power to distinguish treatment arms (P = .012) compared with the standard measurement of total lesion load change on native images (P = .455). CONCLUSION: MR image subtraction enabled detection of higher numbers of active MS lesions with greater interobserver agreement and exhibited increased power to distinguish treatment arms, as compared with a conventional pair-wise comparison of nonregistered MR images.
RS Desikan, HJ Cabral, B Fischl, CRG Guttmann, D Blacker, BT Hyman, MS Albert, and RJ Killiany. 2009. “Temporoparietal MR imaging measures of atrophy in subjects with mild cognitive impairment that predict subsequent diagnosis of Alzheimer disease.” AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 30, 3, Pp. 532-8.Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a transitional state between normal aging and Alzheimer disease (AD). Our goal was to determine if specific temporoparietal regions can predict the time to progress from MCI to AD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR images from 129 individuals with MCI were analyzed to identify the volume of 14 neocortical and 2 non-neocortical brain regions, comprising the temporal and parietal lobes. In addition, 3 neuropsychological test scores were included to determine whether they would provide independent information. After a mean follow-up time of 5 years, 44 of these individuals had progressed to a diagnosis of AD. RESULTS: Cox proportional hazards models demonstrated significant effects for 6 MR imaging regions with the greatest differences being the following: the entorhinal cortex (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.54, P < .001), inferior parietal lobule (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.64, P < .005), and middle temporal gyrus (HR = 0.64, P < .004), indicating decreased risk with larger volumes. A multivariable model showed that a combination of the entorhinal cortex (HR = 0.60, P < .001) and the inferior parietal lobule (HR = 0.62, P < .01) was the best predictor of time to progress to AD. A multivariable model reiterated the importance of including both MR imaging and neuropsychological variables in the final model. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reaffirm the importance of the entorhinal cortex and present evidence for the importance of the inferior parietal lobule as a predictor of time to progress from MCI to AD. The inclusion of neuropsychological performance in the final model continues to highlight the importance of using these measures in a complementary fashion.
RS Desikan, HJ Cabral, B Fischl, CRG Guttmann, D Blacker, BT Hyman, MS Albert, and RJ Killiany. 2009. “Temporoparietal MR imaging measures of atrophy in subjects with mild cognitive impairment that predict subsequent diagnosis of Alzheimer disease.” AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 30, 3, Pp. 532-8.Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a transitional state between normal aging and Alzheimer disease (AD). Our goal was to determine if specific temporoparietal regions can predict the time to progress from MCI to AD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR images from 129 individuals with MCI were analyzed to identify the volume of 14 neocortical and 2 non-neocortical brain regions, comprising the temporal and parietal lobes. In addition, 3 neuropsychological test scores were included to determine whether they would provide independent information. After a mean follow-up time of 5 years, 44 of these individuals had progressed to a diagnosis of AD. RESULTS: Cox proportional hazards models demonstrated significant effects for 6 MR imaging regions with the greatest differences being the following: the entorhinal cortex (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.54, P < .001), inferior parietal lobule (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.64, P < .005), and middle temporal gyrus (HR = 0.64, P < .004), indicating decreased risk with larger volumes. A multivariable model showed that a combination of the entorhinal cortex (HR = 0.60, P < .001) and the inferior parietal lobule (HR = 0.62, P < .01) was the best predictor of time to progress to AD. A multivariable model reiterated the importance of including both MR imaging and neuropsychological variables in the final model. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reaffirm the importance of the entorhinal cortex and present evidence for the importance of the inferior parietal lobule as a predictor of time to progress from MCI to AD. The inclusion of neuropsychological performance in the final model continues to highlight the importance of using these measures in a complementary fashion.
Brian C Healy, Douglas L Hayden, Mehul P Sampat, Rohit Bakshi, and Charles RG Guttmann. 2009. “Unbiased treatment effect estimates by modeling the disease process of multiple sclerosis.” J Neurol Sci, 278, 1-2, Pp. 54-9.Abstract
Gadolinium-enhancing lesions in the brain are commonly used as a primary outcome measure of disease activity in phase I/II clinical trials in multiple sclerosis (MS). The advent of effective therapy and the cost of clinical trials have led some researchers to adopt a one-arm study design with selection towards patients showing MRI activity. Regression to the mean is recognized as an important consideration in these trials, but the additional confounding effect of alternating active and inactive phases of disease has not been considered. Simulated data were generated from Poisson and normal distributions to mimic outcomes from phase I/II clinical trials of patients with relapsing-remitting MS under a constant or changing disease process model. In all cases, conventional comparison of pretreatment to on-treatment measurements overestimated the treatment effect. Although correction for regression to the mean provided unbiased estimates of the treatment effect under a constant disease process model, this correction also overestimated the treatment effect when disease activity changed over time. Conversely, unbiased estimates of the treatment effect under an alternating (active/inactive) disease process were obtained by correctly accounting for regression to the mean and the disease process. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of efficacy and safety.
2008
V Viglietta, K Bourcier, GJ Buckle, B Healy, HL Weiner, DA Hafler, S Egorova, CRG Guttmann, JR Rusche, and SJ Khoury. 2008. “CTLA4Ig treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis: an open-label, phase 1 clinical trial.” Neurology, 71, 12, Pp. 917-24.Abstract
BACKGROUND: The modulation of costimulatory pathways represents an original therapeutic approach to regulate T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases by preventing or reducing autoantigen-driven T-cell activation in humans. Autoreactive CD4(+) T cells play a critical role in initiating the immune response leading to the chronic inflammation and demyelination characteristic of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We used IV infusions of CTLA4Ig to block the CD28/B7 T-cell costimulatory pathway in a phase 1 dose-escalation study in MS. Sixteen patients with relapsing-remitting MS received a single CTLA4Ig infusion and were monitored for up to 3 months after treatment. In an extension study, four additional subjects received four doses of CTLA4Ig. RESULTS: CTLA4Ig was well tolerated in patients with MS, and most adverse events were rated as mild. Immunologic assessment of the patients showed a reduction in myelin basic protein (MBP) proliferation within 2 months of infusion and decreased interferon-gamma production by MBP-specific lines. CONCLUSIONS: Inhibiting costimulatory molecule interactions by using CTLA4Ig seems safe in multiple sclerosis (MS), and the immunologic effects suggest that it may be a promising approach to regulate the inflammatory process associated with MS.
Eric E Smith, Svetlana Egorova, Deborah Blacker, Ronald J Killiany, Alona Muzikansky, Bradford C Dickerson, Rudolph E Tanzi, Marilyn S Albert, Steven M Greenberg, and Charles RG Guttmann. 2008. “Magnetic resonance imaging white matter hyperintensities and brain volume in the prediction of mild cognitive impairment and dementia.” Arch Neurol, 65, 1, Pp. 94-100.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) white matter hyperintensities (WMH), whole-brain atrophy, and cardiovascular risk factors predict the development of cognitive decline and dementia. DESIGN: Subjects were recruited into this prospective cohort study and followed for incident cognitive decline for mean (SD) 6.0 (4.1) years. Magnetic resonance imaging dual-echo sequences, obtained at baseline, were used to determine the volume of WMH and the brain parenchymal fraction (BPF), the proportion of the intracranial cavity occupied by brain. White matter hyperintensity volume was analyzed as the percentage of intracranial volume (WMHr); "high WMH" was defined as a WMHr more than 1 SD above the mean. SETTING: General community. PATIENTS: Volunteer sample consisting of 67 subjects with normal cognition and 156 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time to diagnosis of MCI (among those with normal cognition at baseline) or time to diagnosis of dementia, either all-cause or probable Alzheimer disease (AD) (among those with MCI at baseline). Cox proportional hazards models were used for multivariable analysis. RESULTS: High WMH was a predictor of progression from normal to MCI (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 3.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-8.17; P= .01) but not conversion from MCI to all-cause dementia. Conversely, BPF did not predict progression from normal to MCI but did predict conversion to dementia (adjusted HR, 1.10 for each 1% decrease in BPF; 95% CI, 1.02-1.19; P= .02). When conversion to AD dementia was considered as the outcome, BPF was likewise a predictor (adjusted HR, 1.16 for each 1% decrease in BPF; 95% CI, 1.08-1.24; P< .001), but high WMH was not. Past tobacco smoking was associated with both progression from normal to MCI (adjusted HR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.12-6.55; P= .03) and conversion to all-cause dementia (adjusted HR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.13-3.82; P= .02), but not AD dementia. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that WMH are associated with the risk of progressing from normal to MCI. In persons whose cognitive abilities are already impaired, BPF predicts the conversion to dementia.
Eric E Smith, Svetlana Egorova, Deborah Blacker, Ronald J Killiany, Alona Muzikansky, Bradford C Dickerson, Rudolph E Tanzi, Marilyn S Albert, Steven M Greenberg, and Charles RG Guttmann. 2008. “Magnetic resonance imaging white matter hyperintensities and brain volume in the prediction of mild cognitive impairment and dementia.” Arch Neurol, 65, 1, Pp. 94-100.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) white matter hyperintensities (WMH), whole-brain atrophy, and cardiovascular risk factors predict the development of cognitive decline and dementia. DESIGN: Subjects were recruited into this prospective cohort study and followed for incident cognitive decline for mean (SD) 6.0 (4.1) years. Magnetic resonance imaging dual-echo sequences, obtained at baseline, were used to determine the volume of WMH and the brain parenchymal fraction (BPF), the proportion of the intracranial cavity occupied by brain. White matter hyperintensity volume was analyzed as the percentage of intracranial volume (WMHr); "high WMH" was defined as a WMHr more than 1 SD above the mean. SETTING: General community. PATIENTS: Volunteer sample consisting of 67 subjects with normal cognition and 156 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time to diagnosis of MCI (among those with normal cognition at baseline) or time to diagnosis of dementia, either all-cause or probable Alzheimer disease (AD) (among those with MCI at baseline). Cox proportional hazards models were used for multivariable analysis. RESULTS: High WMH was a predictor of progression from normal to MCI (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 3.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-8.17; P= .01) but not conversion from MCI to all-cause dementia. Conversely, BPF did not predict progression from normal to MCI but did predict conversion to dementia (adjusted HR, 1.10 for each 1% decrease in BPF; 95% CI, 1.02-1.19; P= .02). When conversion to AD dementia was considered as the outcome, BPF was likewise a predictor (adjusted HR, 1.16 for each 1% decrease in BPF; 95% CI, 1.08-1.24; P< .001), but high WMH was not. Past tobacco smoking was associated with both progression from normal to MCI (adjusted HR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.12-6.55; P= .03) and conversion to all-cause dementia (adjusted HR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.13-3.82; P= .02), but not AD dementia. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that WMH are associated with the risk of progressing from normal to MCI. In persons whose cognitive abilities are already impaired, BPF predicts the conversion to dementia.
Z Liptak, AM Berger, MP Sampat, A Charil, O Felsovalyi, BC Healy, P Hildenbrand, SJ Khoury, HL Weiner, R Bakshi, and CRG Guttmann. 2008. “Medulla oblongata volume: a biomarker of spinal cord damage and disability in multiple sclerosis.” AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 29, 8, Pp. 1465-70.Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: While brain MR imaging is routinely performed, the MR imaging assessment of spinal cord pathology in multiple sclerosis (MS) is less frequent in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to determine whether measurements of medulla oblongata volume (MOV) on routine brain MR imaging could serve as a biomarker of spinal cord damage and disability in MS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 45 patients with MS with both head and cervical spinal cord MR imaging and 29 age-matched and sex-matched healthy control subjects with head MR imaging. Disability was assessed by the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and ambulation index (AI). MOV and upper cervical cord volume (UCCV) were manually segmented; semiautomated segmentation was used for brain parenchymal fraction (BPF). These measures were compared between groups, and linear regression models were built to predict disability. RESULTS: In the patients, MOV correlated significantly with UCCV (r = 0.67), BPF (r = 0.45), disease duration (r = -0.64), age (r = -0.47), EDSS score (r = -0.49) and AI (r = -0.52). Volume loss of the medulla oblongata was -0.008 cm(3)/year of age in patients with MS, but no significant linear relationship with age was found for healthy control subjects. The patients had a smaller MOV (mean +/- SD, 1.02 +/- 0.17 cm(3)) than healthy control subjects (1.15 +/- 0.15 cm(3)), though BPF was unable to distinguish between these 2 groups. MOV was smaller in patients with progressive MS (secondary- progressive MS, 0.88 +/- 0.19 cm(3) and primary-progressive MS, 0.95 +/- 0.30 cm(3)) than in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (1.08 +/- 0.15 cm(3)). A model including both MOV and BPF better predicted AI than BPF alone (P = .04). Good reproducibility in MOV measurements was demonstrated for intrarater (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.97), interrater (0.79), and scan rescan data (0.81). CONCLUSION: MOV is associated with disability in MS and can serve as a biomarker of spinal cord damage.
Rohit Bakshi, Alan J Thompson, Maria A Rocca, Daniel Pelletier, Vincent Dousset, Frederik Barkhof, Matilde Inglese, Charles RG Guttmann, Mark A Horsfield, and Massimo Filippi. 2008. “MRI in multiple sclerosis: current status and future prospects.” Lancet Neurol, 7, 7, Pp. 615-25.Abstract
Many promising MRI approaches for research or clinical management of multiple sclerosis (MS) have recently emerged, or are under development or refinement. Advanced MRI methods need to be assessed to determine whether they allow earlier diagnosis or better identification of phenotypes. Improved post-processing should allow more efficient and complete extraction of information from images. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy should improve in sensitivity and specificity with higher field strengths and should enable the detection of a wider array of metabolites. Diffusion imaging is moving closer to the goal of defining structural connectivity and, thereby, determining the functional significance of lesions at specific locations. Cell-specific imaging now seems feasible with new magnetic resonance contrast agents. The imaging of myelin water fraction brings the hope of providing a specific measure of myelin content. Ultra-high-field MRI increases sensitivity, but also presents new technical challenges. Here, we review these recent developments in MRI for MS, and also look forward to refinements in spinal-cord imaging, optic-nerve imaging, perfusion MRI, and functional MRI. Advances in MRI should improve our ability to diagnose, monitor, and understand the pathophysiology of MS.
RS Desikan, B Fischl, HJ Cabral, TL Kemper, CRG Guttmann, D Blacker, BT Hyman, MS Albert, and RJ Killiany. 2008. “MRI measures of temporoparietal regions show differential rates of atrophy during prodromal AD.” Neurology, 71, 11, Pp. 819-25.Abstract
BACKGROUND: MRI studies have demonstrated differential rates of atrophy in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus during the prodromal phase of Alzheimer disease (AD). The current study was designed to determine whether a broader set of temporoparietal regions show differential rates of atrophy during the evolution of AD. METHODS: Sixteen regions of interest (ROIs) were analyzed on MRI scans obtained at baseline and follow-up in 66 subjects comprising three groups: controls = individuals who were cognitively normal at both baseline and follow-up; nonconverters = subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at both baseline and follow-up; converters had MCI at baseline but had progressed to AD at follow-up. RESULTS: Annualized percent change was analyzed with multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), covaried for age. The MANOVA demonstrated an effect of group (p = 0.004). Post hoc comparisons demonstrated greater rates of atrophy for converters vs nonconverters for six ROIs: hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, temporal pole, middle temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, and inferior temporal gyrus. Converters showed differentially greater rates of atrophy than controls in five of the same ROIs (and inferior parietal lobule). Rates of change in clinical status were correlated with the atrophy rates in these regions. Comparisons between controls and nonconverters demonstrated no differences. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that temporoparietal regions show differential rates of atrophy on MRI during prodromal Alzheimer disease (AD). MRI data correlate with measures of clinical severity and cognitive decline, suggesting the potential of these regions of interest as antemortem markers of prodromal AD.
Jonathan J Wisco, Ronald J Killiany, Charles RG Guttmann, Simon K Warfield, Mark B Moss, and Douglas L Rosene. 2008. “An MRI study of age-related white and gray matter volume changes in the rhesus monkey.” Neurobiol Aging, 29, 10, Pp. 1563-75.Abstract
We applied the automated MRI segmentation technique Template Driven Segmentation (TDS) to dual-echo spin echo (DE SE) images of eight young (5-12 years), six middle-aged (16-19 years) and eight old (24-30 years) rhesus monkeys. We analyzed standardized mean volumes for 18 anatomically defined regions of interest (ROI's) and found an overall decrease from young to old age in the total forebrain (5.01%), forebrain parenchyma (5.24%), forebrain white matter (11.53%), forebrain gray matter (2.08%), caudate nucleus (11.79%) and globus pallidus (18.26%). Corresponding behavioral data for five of the young, five of the middle-aged and seven of the old subjects on the Delayed Non-matching to Sample (DNMS) task, the Delayed-recognition Span Task (DRST) and the Cognitive Impairment Index (CII) were also analyzed. We found that none of the cognitive measures were related to ROI volume changes in our sample size of monkeys.
Bastiaan Moraal, Stefan D Roosendaal, Petra JW Pouwels, Hugo Vrenken, Ronald A van Schijndel, Dominik S Meier, Charles RG Guttmann, Jeroen JG Geurts, and Frederik Barkhof. 2008. “Multi-contrast, isotropic, single-slab 3D MR imaging in multiple sclerosis.” Eur Radiol, 18, 10, Pp. 2311-20.Abstract
To describe signal and contrast properties of an isotropic, single-slab 3D dataset [double inversion-recovery (DIR), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), T2, and T1-weighted magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MPRAGE)] and to evaluate its performance in detecting multiple sclerosis (MS) brain lesions compared to 2D T2-weighted spin-echo (T2SE). All single-slab 3D sequences and 2D-T2SE were acquired in 16 MS patients and 9 age-matched healthy controls. Lesions were scored independently by two raters and characterized anatomically. Two-tailed Bonferroni-corrected Student's t-tests were used to detect differences in lesion detection between the various sequences per anatomical area after log-transformation. In general, signal and contrast properties of the 3D sequences enabled improved detection of MS brain lesions compared to 2D-T2SE. Specifically, 3D-DIR showed the highest detection of intracortical and mixed WM-GM lesions, whereas 3D-FLAIR showed the highest total number of WM lesions. Both 3D-DIR and 3D-FLAIR showed the highest number of infratentorial lesions. 3D-T2 and 3D-MPRAGE did not improve lesion detection compared to 2D-T2SE. Multi-contrast, isotropic, single-slab 3D MRI allowed an improved detection of both GM and WM lesions compared to 2D-T2SE. A selection of single-slab 3D contrasts, for example, 3D-FLAIR and 3D-DIR, could replace 2D sequences in the radiological practice.
Rohit Bakshi, Mohit Neema, Brian C Healy, Zsuzsanna Liptak, Rebecca A Betensky, Guy J Buckle, Susan A Gauthier, James Stankiewicz, Dominik Meier, Svetlana Egorova, Ashish Arora, Zachary D Guss, Bonnie Glanz, Samia J Khoury, Charles RG Guttmann, and Howard L Weiner. 2008. “Predicting clinical progression in multiple sclerosis with the magnetic resonance disease severity scale.” Arch Neurol, 65, 11, Pp. 1449-53.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Individual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disease severity measures, such as atrophy or lesions, show weak relationships to clinical status in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To combine MS-MRI measures of disease severity into a composite score. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTING: Community-based and referral subspecialty clinic in an academic hospital. PATIENTS: A total of 103 patients with MS, with a mean (SD) Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of 3.3 (2.2), of whom 62 (60.2%) had the relapsing-remitting, 33 (32.0%) the secondary progressive, and 8 (7.8%) the primary progressive form. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Brain MRI measures included baseline T2 hyperintense (T2LV) and T1 hypointense (T1LV) lesion volume and brain parenchymal fraction (BPF), a marker of global atrophy. The ratio of T1LV to T2LV (T1:T2) assessed lesion severity. A Magnetic Resonance Disease Severity Scale (MRDSS) score, on a continuous scale from 0 to 10, was derived for each patient using T2LV, BPF, and T1:T2. RESULTS: The MRDSS score averaged 5.1 (SD, 2.6). Baseline MRI and EDSS correlations were moderate for BPF, T1:T2, and MRDSS and weak for T2LV. The MRDSS showed a larger effect size than the individual MRI components in distinguishing patients with the relapsing-remitting form from those with the secondary progressive form. Models containing either T2LV or MRDSS were significantly associated with disability progression during the mean (SD) 3.2 (0.3)-year observation period, when adjusting for baseline EDSS score. CONCLUSION: Combining brain MRI lesion and atrophy measures can predict MS clinical progression and provides the basis for developing an MRI-based continuous scale as a marker of MS disease severity.
Jonathan J Wisco, Douglas L Rosene, Ronald J Killiany, Mark B Moss, Simon K Warfield, Svetlana Egorova, Ying Wu, Zsusanna Liptak, Jeremy Warner, and Charles RG Guttmann. 2008. “A rhesus monkey reference label atlas for template driven segmentation.” J Med Primatol, 37, 5, Pp. 250-60.Abstract
BACKGROUND: We have acquired dual-echo spin-echo (DE SE) MRI data of the rhesus monkey brain since 1994 as part of an ongoing study of normal aging. To analyze these legacy data for regional volume changes, we have created a reference label atlas for the Template Driven Segmentation (TDS) algorithm. METHODS: The atlas was manually created from DE SE legacy MRI data of one behaviorally normal, young, male rhesus monkey and consisted of 14 regions of interest (ROI's). We analyzed the reproducibility and validity of the TDS algorithm using the atlas relative to manual segmentation. RESULTS: ROI volumes were comparable between the two segmentation methodologies, except TDS overestimated the volume of basal ganglia regions. Both methodologies were highly reproducible, but TDS had lower sensitivity and comparable specificity. CONCLUSIONS: TDS segmentation calculates accurate volumes for most ROI's. Sensitivity will be improved in future studies through the acquisition of higher quality data.
Y Duan, PG Hildenbrand, MP Sampat, DF Tate, I Csapo, B Moraal, R Bakshi, F Barkhof, DS Meier, and CRG Guttmann. 2008. “Segmentation of subtraction images for the measurement of lesion change in multiple sclerosis.” AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 29, 2, Pp. 340-6.Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lesion volume change (LVC) assessment is essential in monitoring MS progression. LVC is usually measured by independently segmenting serial MR imaging examinations. Subtraction imaging has been proposed for improved visualization and characterization of lesion change. We compare segmentation of subtraction images (SSEG) with serial single time-point conventional segmentation (CSEG) by assessing the LVC relationship to brain atrophy and disease duration, as well as scan-rescan reproducibility and annual rates of lesion accrual. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pairs of scans were acquired 1.5 to 4.7 years apart in 21 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Scan-rescan MR images were acquired within 30 minutes in 10 patients with MS. LVC was measured with CSEG and SSEG after coregistration and normalization. Coefficient of variation (COV) and Bland-Altman analyses estimated method reproducibility. Spearman rank correlations probed associations between LVC and other measures. RESULTS: Atrophy rate and net LVC were associated for SSEG (R = -0.446; P < .05) but not when using CSEG (R = -0.180; P = .421). Disease duration did not show an association with net lesion volume change per year measured by CSEG (R = -0.360; P = .11) but showed an inverse correlation with SSEG-derived measurements (R = -0.508; P < .05). Scan-rescan COV was lower for SSEG (0.98% +/- 1.55%) than for CSEG (8.64% +/- 9.91%). CONCLUSION: SSEG unveiled a relationship between T2 LVC and concomitant brain atrophy and demonstrated significantly higher measurement reproducibility. SSEG, a promising tool providing detailed analysis of subtle alterations in lesion size and intensity, may provide critical outcome measures for clinical trials of novel treatments, and may provide further insight into progression patterns in MS.
Charles RG Guttmann. 2008. “Simplified MRI prediction of clinically definite multiple sclerosis: a stepping stone towards treatment criteria?” Nat Clin Pract Neurol, 4, 3, Pp. 136-7.
Christopher M Holland, Eric E Smith, Istvan Csapo, Mahmut Edip Gurol, Douglas A Brylka, Ronald J Killiany, Deborah Blacker, Marilyn S Albert, Charles RG Guttmann, and Steven M Greenberg. 2008. “Spatial distribution of white-matter hyperintensities in Alzheimer disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and healthy aging.” Stroke, 39, 4, Pp. 1127-33.Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White-matter hyperintensities (WMHs) detected by magnetic resonance imaging are thought to represent the effects of cerebral small-vessel disease and neurodegenerative changes. We sought to determine whether the spatial distribution of WMHs discriminates between different disease groups and healthy aging individuals and whether these distributions are related to local cerebral perfusion patterns. METHODS: We examined the pattern of WMHs by T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in 3 groups of subjects: cerebral amyloid angiopathy (n=32), Alzheimer disease or mild cognitive impairment (n=41), and healthy aging (n=29). WMH frequency maps were calculated for each group, and spatial distributions were compared by voxel-wise logistic regression. WMHs were also analyzed as a function of normal cerebral perfusion patterns by overlaying a single photon emission computed tomography atlas. RESULTS: Although WMH volume was greater in cerebral amyloid angiopathy and Alzheimer disease/mild cognitive impairment than in healthy aging, there was no consistent difference in the spatial distributions when controlling for total WMH volume. Hyperintensities were most frequent in the deep periventricular WM in all 3 groups. A strong inverse correlation between hyperintensity frequency and normal perfusion was demonstrated in all groups, demonstrating that WMHs were most common in regions of relatively lower normal cerebral perfusion. CONCLUSIONS: WMHs show a common distribution pattern and predilection for cerebral WM regions with lower atlas-derived perfusion, regardless of the underlying diagnosis. These data suggest that across diverse disease processes, WM injury may occur in a pattern that reflects underlying tissue properties, such as relative perfusion.
2007
BI Glanz, CM Holland, SA Gauthier, EL Amunwa, Z Liptak, MK Houtchens, RA Sperling, SJ Khoury, CRG Guttmann, and HL Weiner. 2007. “Cognitive dysfunction in patients with clinically isolated syndromes or newly diagnosed multiple sclerosis.” Mult Scler, 13, 8, Pp. 1004-10.Abstract
Cognitive dysfunction is common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and has been associated with MRI measures of lesion burden and atrophy. Little is known about the prevalence of cognitive impairment in patients with early MS. The associations between cognitive impairment and MRI measures of disease severity early in the disease course are also unclear. This study used a brief battery of cognitive tests to determine the prevalence and pattern of cognitive impairment in patients with clinically isolated syndromes or newly diagnosed MS. The associations between cognitive impairment and MRI measures of disease severity early in the disease course were also examined. Ninety-two patients with clinically isolated syndromes or the diagnosis of MS within the last 3 years participating in the CLIMB study underwent a neurologic examination, neuropsychological evaluation and MRI at 1.5 T. Forty-nine percent of patients were impaired on one or more cognitive measures. There were no significant correlations between cognitive scores and MRI measures of disease severity including total T2 lesion volume, normal appearing white matter volume, grey matter volume, and brain parenchymal fraction. These findings suggest that cognitive impairment may predate the appearance of gross structural abnormalities on MRI and serve as an early marker of disease activity in MS.

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